Cinematography is escapism. Consequently, films can make us feel a variety of things, from emotion to anger, frustration, confusion and even pain. Above is a video of 20 of the most popular techniques used to render so much feeling.
Film student Oscar Feiven comprised the video for a school project. He also lists the films used, as well as the techniques they're meant to illustrate.
There's no point in enumerating them here as well, since you can check out the video and discover them for yourself.
We'll just note that, as we speak, many commenters on YouTube are pointing out to Feiven that he got some of the names of the techniques wrong or, at the very least, that he's using them in too generic a sense.
The “Inception” scene, for instance, isn't best described by “special effects” since director Chris Nolan built the hallway in which it was shot, so there was no studio (post-production) trickery to it. The technique employed would be best called “practical effects.”